Skip to content ↓

Areas of Need

What does Special Educational Needs mean?

Pupils have Special Educational Needs if they have a learning difficulty that calls for special educational provisions to be made for them. Pupils have a learning difficulty if they:

• Have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of pupils of the same age; or

• Have a disability that prevents or hinders the pupil from making use of educational facilities of a kind generally provided for pupils of the same age in mainstream schools or mainstream post-16 institutions.

Pupils are regarded as having Special Educational Needs if they require educational provision that is additional to, or different from, the educational provision made generally for pupils of their age.

What are the four areas of need?

We maintain a strong ethos of inclusion at Drybrook which aims to provide fully for children across a range of special educational needs:

• Communication and Interaction

This includes pupils with speech, language delay, impairments or disorders, specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and dyspraxia, hearing impairment, and those who demonstrate features within the autistic spectrum.

• Cognition and Learning

This includes pupils who demonstrate features of moderate, severe, or profound learning difficulties or specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia, dyscalculia, dysgraphia, or dyspraxia.

• Social, Emotional, and Mental Health

This includes pupils who may be withdrawn or isolated, disruptive or disturbing, hyperactive, or lack concentration.

• Sensory and/or Physical Needs

This includes pupils with sensory, multisensory, and physical difficulties.


Many pupils and young people who have SEND may have a disability under the Equality Act 2010 – that is, a physical or mental impairment that has a long-term and substantial adverse effect on their ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities. This definition includes sensory impairments such as those affecting sight or hearing, and long-term health conditions such as asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Pupils and young people with such conditions do not necessarily have SEND, but there is a significant overlap between disabled pupils and young people and those with SEND. Where a disabled pupil or young person requires special educational provision, they will also be covered by the SEND definition.